Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Privatisation and Business Environment
On his websiteThorsten Beck at Tilburg University provides access to data on small and medium enterprises (SME) share of employment in firms with less than 250 employees in manufacturing.
The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research program is an annual assessment of the national level of entrepreneurial activity. Data is collected for ‘activity’, ‘aspirations’, and ‘attitudes and perceptions’ (multiple variables under each rubric). Started as a partnership between London Business School and Babson College, it was initiated in 1999 with 10 countries, expanded to 21 in the year 2000, with 29 countries in 2001 and 37 countries in 2002. GEM 2009 is set to conduct research in 56 countries. GEM data for 1999 – 2006 is currently in the public domain. Full GEM datasets are made available to the public three years after the end of an annual data collection cycle. As such, GEM 2007 data will be made available to the public in January 2011. The data is in SPSS format.
The World Bank World Business Environment Survey (WBES 2000) was administered to enterprises in 80 countries in late 1999 and early 2000, using a standard core enterprise questionnaire methodology. This comprehensive survey of over 10,000 firms covers enterprise responses to multiple questions on the investment climate and business environment as shaped by domestic economic policy; governance; regulatory, infrastructural and financial impediments, as well as assessments of public service quality. There is no access to the raw data from this website, so you will have to go through the variable and sample selection process and then ask for the data in spreadsheet format.
The World Bank Doing Business project ‘provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 181 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level.’ The raw data for these surveys (run from 2004 onwards but with varying coverage for individual countries) is available via summary reports, which can then be accessed in excel.
The World Bank offers some statistics and details on privatisation transactions in excess of $1million within developing countries. The searchable database is for 2000-2007, but there is also a link to an Excel spreadsheet for the period 1988-1999. Apart from summary statistics on deal value etc., this resource provides transaction-level information (name of the company, sector, year and value of the deal) for developing and emerging economies. There is also a link for this and other World Bank data (e.g. infrastructure, Doing Business) to be mapped on a global scale – unfortunately these google-map based charts do not use standard colouring-in of countries but labels instead, which means they’re not that helpful (plus: they cannot be exported). However, I imagine the new World Bank data mapper will supersede this tool very soon.
Labour Regulation data: Andrei Shleifer‘s website provides links to a number of datasets he has compiled and used with various co-authors. This includes ‘Private Credit in 129 Countries’ (JFE 2007, with S. Djankov and C. McLiesh), with data from 1978-2002 and data on the ‘unofficial economy’ (primarily cross-section data).
Macro Stability, Business Cycles, Banking, Finance and Financial Crises
For Public Finance see section on Social Security, Taxes and the State.
The IADB website hosts the data used in the work on trade intensity and business cycles by César Calderón, Alberto Chong and Ernesto Stein (2006, JIE). From the abstract: “Using annual information for 147 countries for the period 1960-99 we find that the impact of trade intensity on business cycle correlation among developing countries is positive and significant, but substantially smaller than that among industrial countries. Our findings suggest that differences in the responsiveness of cycle synchronization to trade integration between industrial and developing countries are explained by differences in the patterns of specialization and bilateral trade.”
A New Database on Financial Development and Structure (1960-2007), produced by Thorsten Beck, Asli Demirguc-Kunt and Ross Levine, is available on the World Bank website . This is the updated version (April 2010) and provides indicators of financial development and structure (in total 22 variables) across countries (211 countries listed, but there are of course missing observations) and over time.
Systemic Banking Crises: A New Database (1970-2007) is presented by Luc Laeven and Fabian Valencia in their IMF working paper No. 08/224. This paper presents a new database on the timing of systemic banking crises and policy responses to resolve them. The database covers the universe of systemic banking crises for the period 1970-2007, with detailed data on crisis containment and resolution policies for 42 crisis episodes, and also includes data on the timing of currency crises and sovereign debt crises. The database extends and builds on the Caprio, Klingebiel, Laeven, and Noguera (2005) banking crisis database, and is the most complete and detailed database on banking crises to date.
The personal website of Luc Laeven (Deputy Division Chief in the Research Department of the International Monetary Fundand Full Professor of Finance at CentER, Tilburg University) carries a number of interesting datasets for cross-country analysis, including the ‘Banking Crisis Database (2010)’, Crisis resolution database and Deposit Insurance Database, together with some papers he’s written describing and analysing the data. [Thanks to my buddy Andrea Presbitero at Università Politecnica delle Marche for the pointer]
On his websiteThorsten Beck at Tilburg University provides cross-section data (2003) on access and use of banking services across 99 developing and developed countries: number of branches, ATMs, loans, deposits. This is from joint work with A.Demirgüç-Kunt and M. Martinez Peria. Thorsten also has panel data on financial development (private credit) for up to 72 countries, from work with A. Demirgüç-Kunt and R. Levine.
The World Bank provides (in collaboration with the IMF) the Quarterly External Debt Statistics – these come in two variants, the general (GDDS) and special (SDDS) dissemination. Currently, sixty countries have agreed to participate in the SDDS/QEDS database and forty-two Low-Income Countries (LICs) to provide data to the GDDS/QEDS database. Data begins in 1998.
The Joint External Debt Hub (JEDH – pronounced Jedi?) — jointly developed by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the World Bank (WB) — brings together external debt data and selected foreign assets from international creditor/market and national debtor sources. The JEDH replaces the (above) Joint BIS-IMF-OECD-WB Statistics on External Debt and brings together 34 data series from the above institutions. Coverage starts in 1990 and can be up to quarterly, for all countries in the world, although this depends on the variable (e.g. ‘International Reserves’ seemed to have a very good [from 1990] and quarterly coverage but other variables start later, are less frequent and less broad in country-terms). [This dataset was featured in an article by Sarah Bracking in the Google magazine thinkquarterly]
The Inter-American Development Bank provides data on Bank Ownership and Bank Performance covering 119 countries over the 1995-2002 period. The methodology used to generate the data is described in Micco, Panizza and Yanez (2004) “Bank Ownesrhip and Performance,” IDB-RES working paper No. 518.
The Chinn-Ito index (KAOPEN) is an index measuring a country’s degree of capital account openness. The index was initially introduced in Chinn and Ito (Journal of Development Economics, 2006). KAOPEN is based on the binary dummy variables that codify the tabulation of restrictions on cross-border financial transactions reported in the IMF’s Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions (AREAER). The dataset is available in the Excel or STATA format. The data file contains the Chinn and Ito index series for the time period of 1970-2007 for 182 countries. [Thanks to Malgorzata Sulimierska at Sussex University for the link]
Huang Yongfu at Cambridge’s Land Economy department has some links to datasets on Financial Developments as well as other resources on the topic (researchers in the area, papers).
The IMF has a new database reporting the access to basic consumer financial services worldwide. At present this data covers 138 economies, nominally for the period 1998-2009, although most countries only have data from 2004 onwards. Annual information covers the reported use of banking services and access to banks’ physical outlets. The data for all countries and time periods cam be downloaded as an Excel file. [via economicslinks]
$$ The new IMF Financial Soundness Indicators provide information on the health of the entire sector of financial institutions, but also the counterpart corporate and household sectors, and of relevant markets. So far 64 countries have committed to participate, with the frequency of data left to the discretion of the countries. The database contains 12 core indicators, including variables like “Nonperforming loans to total gross loans” or “Return on Assets”, with the data (at present) provided in excel spreadsheets. Further new databases from the IMF include the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS, from December 2010, dyadic data on inward and outward investment) and the Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey (CPIS, covers equity securities, long- and short-term debt securities broken down by economy of residence of the issuer of the securities).
$$ Another IMF database are the High Frequency Government Statistics, which has annual, quarterly and (for some variables and countries) monthly data on the balance sheet. This is included in the International Financial Statistics.